Complete steps #1, #2, #3, and #4 to write a 1-2 paragraph summary of a source


Complete steps #1, #2, #3, and #4 to write a 1-2 paragraph summary of a source

Complete steps #1, #2, #3, and #4 to write a 1-2 paragraph summary of a source you might use for your Annotated Bibliography.

STEP #2 – Review “How to Write a Summary”
How to Write a Summary
Let’s just say that you just heard Dr. Martin Luther King Jr’s, I Have a Dream Speech, and you wanted to share it with your neighbor. Your summary might look something like the following:
I just heard the most inspiring speech the other night. In it, Dr. King discussed how he envisioned a future without racism and hate. He opened his talk with a reference to the Emancipation Proclamation and pointed out that blacks still did not have their freedom. King then encourages his audience that they needed to act immediately. In the next section, he repeated “I have a dream” eight times and painted a picture of what a world without racism would look like. King concluded his speech by pressing the nation to “let freedom ring.”
Or imagine that you missed your history class, and you asked a classmate what you missed, s/he would say something along the lines of this:
In class the other day, Dr. Martinez discussed ___________. First, she discussed ________. Then she explained ___________. After _______, she moved on to _________. Before Martinez closed the class, she __________.
Both of these examples are summaries, and they have a number of things in common:
References to the person/thing being summarized. They refer to the speaker/author multiple times.
Verbs of attribution (VOA’s). Verbs of attribution are verbs that make it clear that the speaker or author said/wrote something. Examples of VOA’s include the following: “says,” “explain,” “discusses,” and many more. For more VOA’s, google “verbs of attribution.” When the “who” and a VOA are combined, it is referred to as an author tag, e.g. “Martinez argues.”
Transitions that show what part of the original piece is being summarized. Transitions that work well for a summary include “First,” “second,” “third,” “then,” etc. For a more comprehensive list, Google, “time order transitions” or “chronological transitions.” Note: At times, a verb of attribution also acts like a transition like “begins,” “concludes,” or “moves on.”
General details. A summary is not the place to put in very specific stats and numbers.
Few to no quotes. In the King piece, he does repeat a few phrases so many times that it would be nearly impossible to summarize without using the words, “I have a dream” or “Let freedom ring;” however, quotes are generally too specific for a brief introduction.
Objectivity. With the exception of an executive summary, a summary should strictly be what the original author/speaker wrote or said. You should not insert your opinion. This includes phrases like “He opened his moving talk by.” “Moving” is a subjective term.
The Summary Formula
Use the following formula to construct your summary:
1st sentence: Who and what is being summarized + VOA + the thesis of the piece being summarized.
2nd to last sentence: Transition + Who and what is being summarized + VOA + the first major detail of the piece being summarized.
For example:
1st sentence: In the _____ article, Smith + argues + something
2nd sentence: First + he + explained + something
3rd sentence: Smith + explained + the next + something
Note that you may have a sentence or two between each of the above that elaborates further on the first point, etc., but at some point, you need to return to the following: (Transition + Who and what is being summarized + VOA + the next major detail of the piece being summarized.)
Also, keep in mind that you will have something that looks like a summary if you use the above formula, but you need to ensure that the thesis and main points are accurate
STEP #3 – Draft a Summary Paragraph
Use what you have learned from STEP #1 & STEP #2 to draft a 1-paragraph summary of an article on your topic. *You can use an article from a recent research assignment
STEP #4 – Submit Your Summary
Upload your summary as a Word doc or PDF to this assignment folder



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